Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes, which spread infectious Plasmodium parasites into a host. The WHO estimates that in 2020 about 240 million people had malaria and about 627,000 of them died. A vaccine to prevent malaria is available; however, its variable efficacy underscores the need for new interventions. Britannica Quiz Medical Terms and Pioneers Quiz Who discovered the major blood groups? CTD The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database is a scientific resource connecting chemicals, genes, and human diseases.
It is especially dangerous for people who are very young or old or who have other conditions such as heart disease or asthma. Some diseases, such as most forms of cancer, heart disease, and mental disorders, are non-infectious diseases and conditions Many non-infectious diseases have a partly or completely genetic basis and may thus be transmitted from one generation to another.
Find your medical topic by using the comprehensive A-Z list above, click on the browse health centers below or one of our categorized listings of health and medical conditions. Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria live in the intestines of people and animals and are key to a healthy intestinal tract. Coli strains are harmless, but some can cause diarrhea through contact with contaminated food or water while other strains can cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness, and pneumonia. We use the latest interactive tools, graphics, live webinars and events, interviews, medical imagery, and more. Information about getting immunized, school requirements, resources for health care providers, and immunization data for Oregon. Information about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis – including services for community members and resources for providers.
Infectious diseases can be transmitted, e.g. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food, etc. In some cases, microorganisms that are not readily spread from person to person play a role, while other diseases can be prevented or ameliorated with appropriate nutrition or other lifestyle changes. Noncommunicable diseases that arise from inherited genetic abnormalities often leave an individual ill-equipped to survive without some form of treatment. Examples of inherited diseases include cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, and inborn errors of metabolism, which are present at birth. Examples of inherited diseases that emerge in adulthood include Huntington’s disease and certain forms of cancer (e.g., familial breast cancer involving inherited mutations in either of the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2).
Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called viral latency, in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For example, varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in the acute phase; after recovery from chickenpox, the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause herpes zoster. Find relevant and reliable medical information on diseases and conditions.
Classical classification of human disease derives from the observational correlation between pathological analysis and clinical syndromes. Today it is preferred to classify them by their cause if it is known. A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or pathogenesis is unknown. Thus diagnostic terms often only reflect a symptom or set of symptoms.
Information for individuals and families who are impacted by inherited conditions or birth defects, and for policymakers and health care providers. Information about public health policies, systems, and environments that promote health and aid in the prevention and management of chronic disease. In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms. The latency period is the time between infection and the ability of the disease to spread to another person, which may precede, follow, or be simultaneous with the appearance of symptoms.
Health Topics, MedlinePlus descriptions of most diseases, with access to current research articles. An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story that illustrates the sick individual’s personal experience. A condition may be considered a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong people. How a society responds to diseases is the subject of medical sociology.
A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started. A treatment attempts to improve or remove a problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially in chronic diseases. Cures are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. Pain management is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach to the relief of pain and improvement in the quality of life of those living with pain. The quality-adjusted life year and disability-adjusted life year metrics are similar but take into account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis.
The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread. Epidemiology is the study of the factors that cause or encourage diseases. Some diseases are more common in certain geographic areas, among people with certain genetic or socioeconomic characteristics, or at different times of the year.